The photoplethysmography potential for the early diagnosis of diabetic angiopathy of the lower limbs
Background. In most cases of diabetes mellitus (DM), a complication in the form of diabetic angiopathy of the lower limbs is diagnosed rather late when clinical manifestations of vascular pathology appear. Wellness activities at this stage are palliative, the pathology is not reduced. In this regard it becomes necessary to diagnose initial manifestations of diabetic angiopathy at the preclinical stage. The study aims at revealing a difference in microcirculation in the upper and lower limbs in patients with DM. This difference allows us to diagnose an initial stage of diabetic angiopathy of the lower limbs. For this purpose, we used a method of photoplethysmography. Materials and methods. The study involved three groups of people: a group of healthy individuals, a group of patients with DM of up to 5 years duration, and a group of patients with DM of over 10 years duration. Photoplethysmography was carried out on the nail beds of their fingers and toes.
Results. The test showed that in groups of diabetic patients there was a significant difference in the level of microcirculation in upper and lower limbs. This difference dept with increased duration of the disease and reflected the level of carbohydrate metabolism decompensation. This result made it possible to use this method at the early stages in the diagnosis of the formation of diabetic angiopathy of the lower limbs. Conclusions. One of the earliest signs of diabetic angiopathy onset is the appearance of asymmetry in the microcirculation of the hands and feet, revealed by photoplethysmography. The detection of diabetic angiopathy at the preclinical stage opens opportunities for active and effective prevention of vascular complications in DM and diabetic foot development.
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